Active Ingredient: Ciprofloxacin
For plague: Adults-500 to 750 milligrams mg 2 times a day, taken every 12 hours for 14 days. Dosing The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients.
.Wild type and mutant stGyrA the site of substitution a Ser 83 Phe cyan, Ser 83 Tyr.
We detected considerable genetic variation among antibiotic-resistant isolates of E.
Importantly, it is also recognized that fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter spp.
Thus, factors in addition to farm use of antibiotics are likely contributing to antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter spp.
Although antibiotic use did correlate with fluoroquinolone and tetracycline resistance, within each farm there was no association between MLST genotype and antibiotic resistance.
This is similar to other reports for fluoroquinolone resistance. However, some studies report an association between specific MLST genotypes and resistance to fluoroquinolones, tetracycline or multidrug resistance which includes fluoroquinolones and tetracycline.
Where evaluated, STs associated with fluoroquinolone resistance contained mutations in the gyrA gene that is responsible for quinolone resistance, suggesting that either specific Campylobacter genotypes are prone to gyrA mutations or that clonal dissemination of resistant STs has occurred or that only a limited range of gyrA mutations confer fluoroquinolone resistance.
Grenada is a small island state far from the US, UK, Europe, and Asia, and resistant Campylobacter strain emergence in Grenada could contribute to resistance globally.
It has been noted that foreign travel is a risk factor for fluoroquinolone-resistant campylobacteriosis. Furthermore, in popular European travel destinations, both fluoroquinolone and tetracycline resistance among poultry isolates is higher than in other locations.
Tourism is the main industry in Grenada and protecting that economic resource, along with resident human health, is critical for this island state.
In Grenada, poultry production is a vertically integrated, open air system of relatively small production units.
Poultry production is often in close association with back yard or small-scale sheep, goat, and swine production units.
Thus, there is ample opportunity for movement of Campylobacter spp. Antimicrobial and MLST analysis will determine whether any of these mammalian isolates correspond to isolates identified in poultry. This, along with genetic and antimicrobial resistance analysis of human case isolates, will give a more comprehensive picture of Campylobacter host-species population structure and its relevance to human health in Grenada and to campylobacteriosis in countries with similar food animal production systems.
Acknowledgments This work was funded by a grant from St. This publication made use of the C.
The development of this site has been funded by the Wellcome Trust. References K.